Acid Reflux

Alzheimer’s disease

General Infomation
Definition: 

Alzheimer’s disease is a brain disorder that destroys memory and undermines personality.

The illness begins slowly, usually manifesting itself initially as bouts of forgetfulness. These may be occasional at first, but eventually become more frequent. Ultimately, the disease progresses to a stage in which the individual must depend on others for all of his or her needs, both physical and mental. Before getting to this point, affected individuals experience a range of progressive symptoms that may include disorientation, dysphasia (the ability to find the right word), sudden and unpredictable mood swings, hallucinations or delusions, wandering without purpose, incontinence, and neglectfulness of personal hygiene.

It is important to emphasize that occasional forgetfulness is by no means a sure indication of Alzheimer’s disease. Because there is no way to definitively test a living person for this disorder, diagnosis is based on symptoms and the elimination of other disorders that might cause them.

Almost everything science knows about Alzheimer’s disease comes from post-mortem examinations. The first such examination was conducted in 1906 by Alos Alzheimer, for whom the disease is named. He noted unusual changes in the brain tissue taken form a woman who had developed dementia at the age of fifty and died five years later.

Alzheimer found that the tissue contained nerve cells with tangled fibers and clumps of degenerating nerve endings. Examination of people who have died of Alzheimer’s disease has also revealed that their brain tissue contains higher than normal concentration of the toxic metal mercury.

In Alzheimer’s disease, brain cells disappear from both the cerebral cortex, a structure in the front of the brain that is center of intellectual activity, and the hippocampus, a structure deep in the brain involved with memory and reasoning. As the cells malfunction and die, the connections between them lost. This interferes with the intricate process of cell to cell communications.

Researchers have linked the cellular changes seen in Alzheimer’s disease to a defect in a gene, called the apolipoprotein E (APO-E) gene. This gene is responsible for the transport of cholesterol, an essential building material for all cell membranes, including those nerve cells in the brain. Because cholesterol is soluble in fats bit not in water, it needs a carrier molecule to circulate through the water based bloodstream, so the liver attaches it to a water soluble molecule. When the resulting lipoprotein package arrives at a cell, the protein inserts itself into the cell membrane and unloads its cholesterol. The protein is then snapped off and recycled. In the brain tissue of people with Alzheimer disease, the faulty APO-E gene causes the carrier protein to be snapped off at the wrong place.

Immune cells circulating in the brain respond to the malformed protein as to a signal that something is wrong, and they at the nerve cell. The problem is compounded when beta-amyloid, a type of protein that is break. As beta-amyloid disintegrates, it generates harmful free radicals, which in turn destroy cell membranes. The resulting mass of dead cells becomes entangled and for a beta-amyloid plague. Spiral filaments of protein form irregular circles around the nerve cells and lead to the cells death and destruction.

One of the most important uses of the herbal treatment is as a complement to treatment with the pharmaceutical drug tactrine ( cognex). Herbal treatments are also useful at earlier stages of the disease for retarding the progression of the symptoms.

Beneficial herbs
1. Ashwaganda – reduces the brains reliance on its own cells as a source of the choline.
Form and dosage
Withanolide gel caps; take as directed on the label.

2. Butchers broom – promotes healthy circulation.
Form and dosage
Ruscognenin tablets or capsules; take as directed on the label.

3. Ginkgo – has many beneficial effects on the brain and on circulation.
Form and dosage
Ginkgolide tablets; take up to 500 mg once daily.

4. Gotu kola plus hawthorn – reduces cholesterol plagues in blood vessels serving the brain .normalizes the brains normalises the brains use of oxygen.
Form and dosage
Tincture; take 15 drops of each herb in ¼ cup water twice daily.

5. Rose hip – a traditional Japanese remedy for memory loss caused by aging.
From and dosage
Fresh natural vitamin C capsules; take 1,000 mg daily.

6. Soy isoflavone concentrate – has effects similar to those of estrogen. May slow progression of the disease.
Form and dosage
Tablets; take 100mg daily before a meal.

7. Soy lecithin – prevents brain tissue destruction under reduced oxygen conditions.
Form and dosage
Capsules; take 15000 -25,000 mg daily.

Recommendations
Use essential oil of rosemary in aromatherapy, or add 1 tbsp. of the oil to shampoo. The essential oil realizes compounds that can be inhaled and that prevent the breakdown of acetylcholine.

Take a good combination of antioxidant supplement daily, as prescribed on the label. Although a direct link between increasing dietary antioxidants and controlling Alzheimer’s disease has not been proven, it is likely that antioxidants may slow the progress of the condition. They also have many other benefits.

Eat well balanced diet with plenty of fibre to ensure an adequate supply of all nutrients and the healthy elimination of toxins.

Because of the connection between aluminium and Alzheimer’s disease, avoid exposure to this metal. Do not use aluminium cookware, and buy bottled, not canned beverages. Also read labels carefully when shopping. Aluminium is used in some processed foods such as processed cheese, pickles, cake mixes, and baking soda, and in some antacids, buffered aspirins, antidiarrheal preparations, douches, deodorants, and shampoos. It also is found in tap water in many localities.

Considerations
Practitioners of Herbal medicines recommend a diet rich in cumin, coriander, fennel, ginger, and turmeric for people with Alzheimer’s diseases. These spices contain natural antioxidants that may slow the progression of the disease.

Symptoms: 

SYMPTOMS OF ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE

- Bouts of forgetfulness. These may be occasional at first, but eventually become more frequent.

- Affected individuals experience a range of progressive symptoms that may include disorientation, dysphasia (the ability to find the right word), sudden and unpredictable mood swings, hallucinations or delusions, wandering without purpose, incontinence, and neglectfulness of personal hygiene.

Causes & Complication
Causes: 

Cigarette smoke, alcohol, and environmental toxins. According to a study published in the British medical journal the lancet, smoking more than doubles the risk of developing dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease.

Vitamin B12 deficiency can cause symptoms similar to those of Alzheimer’s disease. The deficiency is correctable if detected early, but if symptoms are allowed to become severe, they can be permanent.

Family history and advanced age are the two main risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease, although it can strike at any age. Viruses, head injuries, and excessive exposure of certain metals, most notably aluminium, may also play a role as May deficiencies of nutrients such as vitamin A, vitamin B12, vitamin E, carotenoids, and zinc.

By Austine on 10 September 2019

Acid Reflux

General Infomation
Definition: 

Acid Reflux Causes, Symptoms And Treatment

Acid reflux is also referred as bile reflux. It occurs when bile — a digestive fluid produced in the liver — flows upward from your small intestine into your stomach and esophagus. It is the back flow of stomach acids into your esophagus, the tube that connects your throat and stomach.

Acid or bile reflux can have serious consequences, inflaming the lining of your esophagus and potentially increasing your risk of esophageal cancer. Bile reflux also affects your stomach, where it can cause further inflammation.

Symptoms: 

Acid reflux or bile reflux inflames the stomach, often causing a burning pain in the upper abdomen.

Signs And Symptoms of Acid or Bile reflux:

• Upper abdominal pain that may be severe
• Frequent heartburn — a burning sensation in your chest that sometimes spreads to your throat along with a sour taste in your mouth
• Nausea
• Vomiting bile
• Occasionally, a cough or hoarseness
• Unintended weight loss

Causes & Complication
Causes: 

Bile is a greenish-yellow fluid that's essential for digesting fats and for eliminating worn-out red blood cells and certain toxins from your body. It's produced in your liver and stored in your gallbladder in a highly concentrated form.

Eating a meal that contains even a modest amount of fat signals your gallbladder to release bile, which flows through two small tubes (cystic duct and common bile duct) into the upper part of your small intestine (duodenum).

Causes of acid or bile reflux?

Weak Sphincter Muscles. These are muscles located at the start of the stomach. They should tightly close down the stomach to prevent food from going back to the throat after being swallowed especially when laying down or sleeping.
Gastric surgery complications. Most damage to the pyloric valve occurs as a complication of gastric surgery, including total removal of the stomach (gastrectomy) and gastric bypass operations for weight loss.
Peptic ulcers. Sometimes a peptic ulcer can block the pyloric valve. Rather than not closing tightly, the valve doesn't open enough to allow the stomach to empty as quickly as it should. The stagnant food and liquid in the stomach can lead to increased gastric pressure that causes refluxed bile and stomach acid to back up into the esophagus.
Gallbladder surgery (cholecystectomy). People who have had their gallbladders removed have significantly more bile reflux than do people who haven't had this surgery.
Prescription medications.
Injury.

Complications: 

Bile reflux and acid reflux can seriously damage esophageal tissue. And although bile reflux can injure the esophagus on its own, the combination of bile and acid reflux seems to be particularly harmful, increasing the risk of complications, such as:

Heartburn and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Occasional heartburn usually isn't a concern, although a severe episode can mimic a heart attack. But frequent or constant heartburn is the most common symptom of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), a potentially serious problem that causes irritation and inflammation of esophageal tissue (esophagitis).

Esophageal narrowing (stricture). Repeated exposure to stomach acid, bile or both can cause scar tissue to form in the lower esophagus. This narrows the tube, interfering with swallowing and increasing the risk of choking.

Barrett's esophagus. In this serious condition, long-term exposure to stomach acid or a combination of acid and bile causes malignancy.

Esophageal cancer. This serious form of cancer can occur almost anywhere along the length of the esophagus, and it may not be diagnosed until it's quite advanced. In animal studies, bile reflux alone has been shown to cause cancer of the esophagus.

Gastritis. In addition to causing irritation and inflammation in the esophagus, bile reflux can cause stomach irritation (gastritis). Although not always serious, untreated gastritis can lead to stomach ulcers and to bleeding, a potentially life-threatening problem that requires immediate medical care. Chronic gastritis can also increase the risk of stomach cancer.

Tests
Tests and Diagnosis: 

Endoscopy. In this test, your doctor passes a thin, flexible tube with a light and camera (endoscope) down your throat. The endoscope can show ulcerations or inflammation in your stomach or esophagus and can reveal a peptic ulcer. The test, technically called an esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), also allows your doctor to take tissue samples to test for Barrett's esophagus — a condition in which cells in the esophagus undergo precancerous changes — or esophageal cancer, two potential complications of acid and bile reflux.

Ambulatory acid tests. These tests use an acid-measuring probe to identify when, and for how long, acid refluxes into your esophagus. Because these tests look for the presence of acid, they're useful for diagnosing acid reflux. Ambulatory acid tests are negative in people with bile reflux.

Esophageal impedance. Rather than measuring acid, this test can measure whether gas or liquids reflux into the esophagus. It's helpful for people who have regurgitation of substances that aren't acidic and therefore wouldn't be detected by a pH probe. As in a standard probe test, esophageal impedance uses a probe that's placed into the esophagus with a catheter.

Medication & Prevention
Treatments and Drugs: 

Hospital treatment is not curative. It entails management drugs for life such as ursodeoxycholic acid or diversionary and anti-reflux surgeries which in most cases are not successful.

Our treatment approach however, has yielded the best success rate. Diet counseling and treatment of weak sphincter muscles which does not close well to prevent back flow of acid is what is required and it takes a very short period of 1 month.

Lifestyle and Home Remedies: 

These lifestyle remedies are temporary as you prepare to visit us for permanent treatment. They will help you in reducing the suffering.

Stop smoking. When it comes to acid reflux, smoking is a double threat: It increases the production of stomach acid, and it dries up saliva, which normally helps protect the esophagus.
Eat smaller meals. Eating smaller, more frequent meals reduces pressure on the lower esophageal sphincter, helping to prevent the valve from opening at the wrong time.
Stay upright after eating. After a meal, waiting at least two to three hours before taking a nap or going to bed allows time for your stomach to empty.
Limit fatty foods. High-fat meals relax the lower esophageal sphincter and slow the rate at which food leaves your stomach.
Avoid aggravating foods and beverages. Although the same foods don't trouble everyone, the worst offenders for most people include caffeinated and carbonated drinks, chocolate, citrus foods and juices, vinegar-based dressings, onions, spicy foods, and mint because they increase the production of stomach acid and may relax the lower esophageal sphincter.
Limit or avoid alcohol. Drinking alcohol relaxes the lower esophageal sphincter and irritates the esophagus.
Lose excess weight. Heartburn and acid reflux are more likely to occur when excess weight puts added pressure on your stomach.
Raise your bed. Raise the head of your bed by about four to six inches. The incline may help prevent reflux symptoms. You can either sleep on a foam wedge or elevate the head of your bed with blocks. Pillows usually aren't an effective way to elevate your upper body while sleeping.
Relax. When you're under stress, digestion slows, which may worsen reflux symptoms. Relaxation techniques such as deep breathing, meditation or yoga may help.


By Anonymous on 25 April 2011