OUR LOCATION IN NAIROBI
3rd floor suite 304
Accra road Nairobi cbd
OUR LOCATION IN MOMBASA
Mnazi Moja road
Opposite Mombasa sports club
150 meters after Cassablanca Club
DEFINITION OF ARTHRITIS
Arthritis is a form of joint disorder that causes inflammation of one or more joints. The major complaint by individuals who have arthritis is joint pain. Pain is often a constant and may be localized to the joint affected. The pain from arthritis is due to inflammation that occurs around the joint, damage to the joint from disease, daily wear and tear of joint, muscle strains caused by forceful movements against stiff painful joints and fatigue.
TYPES OF ARTHRITIS AND THEIR CAUSES.
1. Osteoarthritis: The most common form of arthritis. It is also known as degenerative arthritis it involves degradation of joints, including loss of articular cartilage and subchondral bone this may further cause exposure of bone and damage. Symptoms may include joint pain, tenderness, stiffness, locking, and sometimes an effusion. Can be caused by—hereditary, developmental, metabolic, and mechanical deficits. As a result of decreased movement secondary to pain, regional muscles may atrophy, and ligaments may become more lax. Treatment generally involves a combination of exercise, lifestyle modification, and analgesics. If pain becomes debilitating, joint replacement surgery may be used to improve the quality of life. OA the leading cause of chronic disability in the United States. It affects about 1.9 million people in Australia, 8 million people in the United Kingdom and nearly 27 million people in the United States.
2. Rheumatoid arthritis: This is a chronic, systemic inflammatory disorder that primarily affects joints. It may result in deformed and painful joints, which can lead to loss of functioning. The disease may also have signs and symptoms in organs other than joints. The process involves an inflammatory response of the capsule around the joints secondary to swelling of synovial cells, excess synovial fluid, and the development of fibrous tissue (pannus) in the synovium. It also affects the underlying bone(focal erosions) and cartilage(thinning and destruction). RA can also produce diffuse inflammation in the lungs, the membrane around the heart, the membranes of the lung (pleura), and whites of the eye, and also nodular lesions, most common in subcutaneous tissue. It is a clinical diagnosis made primarily on the basis of symptoms and physical examination. X-rays, laboratory testing, and synovial fluid analysis might help support a diagnosis or exclude other diseases with similar symptoms.
3. Gout: Gout is a medical condition mostly characterized by recurrent attacks of acute inflammation, a red, tender, hot, swollen joint. The metatarsal-phalangeal joint at the base of the big toe is the most commonly affected (approximately 50% of cases). However, it may also present as tophi, kidney stones, or urate nephropathy if there is prolonged elevated levels of uric acid in the blood. The uric acid crystallizes, and the crystals deposit in joints, tendons, and surrounding tissues.
Cause: The crystallization of uric acid, often related to relatively high levels in the blood, is the underlying cause of gout. This can occur for a number of reasons, including diet, genetic predisposition, or underexcretion of urate, the salts of uric acid. Under excretion of uric acid by the kidney is the primary cause of hyperuricemia in about 90% of cases, while overproduction is the cause in less than 10%.
Lifestyle: Dietary causes account for about 12% of gout, and include a strong association with the consumption of alcohol, fructose-sweetened drinks, meat, and seafood. Other triggers include physical trauma and surgery. Studies in the early 2000s have found that other dietary factors once believed associated are, in fact, not, including the intake of purine-rich vegetables (e.g., beans, peas, lentils, and spinach) and total protein. With respect to risks related to alcohol, beer and spirits appear to have a greater risk than wine.
The consumption of coffee, vitamin C, and dairy products, as well as physical fitness, appear to decrease the risk. Genetic: The occurrence of gout is partly genetic, contributing to about 60% of variability in uric acid level. Medical conditions: Gout frequently occurs in combination with other medical problems. Metabolic syndrome, a combination of abdominal obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance, and abnormal lipidlevels, occurs in nearly 75% of cases.Other conditions commonly complicated by gout include: polycythemia, lead poisoning, renal failure, hemolytic anemia, psoriasis, and solid organ transplants. A body mass index greater than or equal to 35 increases a male's risk of gout threefold. Chronic lead exposure and lead-contaminated alcohol are risk factors for gout due to the harmful effect of lead on kidney function. Lesch-Nyhan syndrome is often associated with gouty arthritis.
4. Septic arthritis: Septic arthritis is the purulent invasion of a joint by an infectious agent which produces arthritis. Septic arthritis is usually caused by bacteria, but may be caused by viral, mycobacterial, and fungal pathogens as well. People with artificial joints are more at risk than the general population but have slightly different symptoms, are infected with different organisms and require different treatment. Septic arthritis is considered a medical emergency. If untreated, it may destroy the joint in a period of days. The infection may also spread to other parts of the body.
5. Ankylosing spondylitis: is a chronic Arthritis in the hips and shoulders. May occur axial skeleton, with variable involvement of peripheral joints and nonarticular structures. It mainly affects joints in the spine and the sacroiliac joint in the pelvis. In severe cases, it can eventually cause complete fusion and rigidity of the spine. Arthritis in the hips and shoulders.
6. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis: is the most common form of arthritis in children and adolescents below age 16, idiopathic refers to a condition with no defined cause, and arthritis is the inflammation of the synovium of a joint.) JIA is an autoimmune, non-infective, inflammatory joint disease of more than 3 months duration in children less than 16 years of age. The disease commonly occurs in children from the ages of 7 to 12, but it may occur in adolescents as old as 15 years of age, as well as in infants. It is a subset of arthritis seen in childhood, which may be transient and self-limited or chronic. It differs significantly from arthritis commonly seen in adults (osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis), and other types of arthritis that can present in childhood which are chronic conditions (e.g. psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis). Aetiopathology is similar to rheumatoid arthritis but with less marked cartilage erosion, and joint instability and absent rheumatoid factor.